Gum Disease

Gum disease is an inflammatory response caused by a bacterial plaque (biofilm) in your mouth that has not been removed when brushing your teeth. 

There are three stages of gum disease.

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • Advanced Periodontitis

Bacterial plaque forms on your teeth promoting gum disease if not treated.

The risk of gum disease may be reduced through establishing a good oral health regime: brush your teeth with a Fluoride containing toothpaste like BioMin® F for two minutes twice per day, plus use interdental brushes or dental floss to clean between the teeth.

Removing or reducing the development of bacterial plaque is key to preventing gum disease.

Plaque if not treated can harden and turn into tartar (calculus). Dental plaque continues to form on tartar which can not be removed through conventional brushing and flossing. Only through professional scaling by a dentist of hygienist can tartar (calculus) be removed. 

At an advanced stage of gum disease, scaling, ultra sound treatment and root planning by a dental professional is essential to treat the diseased periodontal pockets and overcome any infection.

The symptoms

Gum disease can be a silent condition so it is important to be aware of any of the following symptoms and contact a dental professional;

  • Swollen, tender or red gums
  • Gums bleeding when brushing or flossing
  • Receding gum line
  • Pains when chewing food
  • Overly sensitive teeth
  • Visible pus surrounding the teeth and gums
  • A change in the fit of your partial dentures
  • Loose teeth
  • A change in the way your teeth bite
  • Bad taste in the mouth or bad breath

The stages explained

Gingivitis – The first stage of gum disease. Caused by a build-up of dental plaque at the gum line Gingivitis results in an inflammation of the gums. You may notice swelling, some bleeding whilst brushing or flossing or redness in the gum. If Gingivitis is spotted early the gum disease can be reversed, as the bone and connective tissues have yet to be affected.

Periodontitis – The second stage of gum disease. The supporting connective tissues and bone are now irreversibly damaged. The gums now start to form a pocket below the gum line which promotes the growth of plaque. A professional periodontal treatment along with improved oral hygiene must be put in place to prevent further damage to the gums and bones. Follow the link to find out how to brush with BioMin® toothpaste products.

Advanced Periodontitis – The final stage of gum disease. Your gum fibres and bone structure are been severely damaged. Which can cause your teeth to move or loosen and in some cases, fall out. Advanced Periodontitis can affect how you eat, your bite and how you communicate. Your dentist can advise as to if your teeth need to be removed or there are any restorative options available.

Stages of Gum Disease


  • 1. Healthy Gums & Tooth
  • 2. Gingivitis - Calculus (dental plaque or tartar) builds up on the teeth and gums are inflamed (red). 
  • 3. Periodontitis - Inflammation causes gums to separate from the tooth forming pockets. Plus early stages of bone loss.
  • 4. Advanced Periodontitis - Severe bone loss, deep pockets. Tooth is in danger of falling out.